UGC NET Commerce Exam Syllabus, Exam Pattern, Exam Dates, Cut-off of UGC net commerce, and other details about the exam

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UGC NET Commerce Exam Syllabus, Exam Pattern, Exam Dates, Cut-off of UGC net commerce, and other details about the exam

University grants commissions (UGC) National Testing Agency (NTA) Conducts the NET exam on a half-yearly basis in June and December. a student after post-graduation in commerce, finance, accountancy can appear for the NET commerce exam.

UGC net commerce exam is held for two purposes, first is for JRF – junior research fellow, the person who qualifies JRF will get a monthly scholarship as well enroll in Ph.D., and the second option is to be eligible for assistant professor in college education. JRF merit is on the higher side so in order to become eligible for Scholarships and the P.Hd programs one has to score higher marks in the commerce net.

Further after cracking the UGC net for commerce, a student has numerous opportunities for jobs such as research posts, the teaching profession, etc. 

Recently UGC has recognized the CA final qualified person equivalent to post-graduation so now a CA can directly appear in the NET exam after clearing their CA final exams further the UGC net subjects are similar to UGC net to some extent so you can cover UGC net subjects with your CA, M.com subjects.

In this blog, we will provide you all the details about this exam, before going to that take a look at important highlights of the UGC NET Commerce exam. UGC net subject list is also given below.

UGC net commerce is conducted by

National Testing Agency – UGC

Candidates who qualify UGC net commerce

– JRF – PHD

 – Assistant professor 

Minimum educational qualification required for UGC net commerce

–  Post-graduation in commerce, finance, economics, law or 

– Chartered Accountants or equivalent 

The selection process for UGC net commerce

Online Written Exam, No interview 

net exam pattern for commerce

There will be total 2 Papers of Total 300 Marks 

Paper 1- 50 Questions of 100 Marks – General for all (common paper)

Paper 1 has 10 topics and each topic has an equal weightage of 5-5 marks in the exam.

Paper 2- 100 questions of 200 Marks- Commerce subjects related

No negative markings for wrong answers.

Age limits NET UGC commerce

For JRF – 30 years ( 5 years relaxation for reserved category )

For Assistant professor- no age limit 

UGC net commerce syllabus / net exam syllabus for commerce /net syllabus for commerce

syllabus of net commerce consists of two papers which are given below –

net exam syllabus for commerce Paper -1, net subjects/ net exam subjects (50 Questions ,100 Marks)

1. teaching aptitude

2. Research aptitude

3. Reading comprehension 

4. communication

5. Reasoning (including mathematical)

6. logical reasoning

7. data interpretation

8. information and communication technology (ICT)

9. people and environment

10. higher education system – governance, polity, and administration

net exam subjects for commerce syllabus Paper 2 of UGC NET Commerce/net set exam syllabus for commerce

 (100 questions of 200 Marks)

net exam for commerce has the following subjects

1. Business environment 

2. Business finance 

3. Business economics

4. Business statistics & Research method 

5. Business management and Human Resource management 

6. Marketing management 

7. Financial institutions and banking 

8. Legal aspects of business 

9. International business 

10. Accounting & Auditing

11. Income tax and corporate tax planning 

UGC NET Commerce exam dates  

NTA National testing agency conducts the exam of NET every year twice in June and December, so you have two attempts every year for the NET exams. Recently UGC announced the dates for December 2020 and June 2021 attempts combined exam dates.

Form UGC net commerce

Please visit the official website of UGC to apply for UGC net exams, you can apply for the exam while you are in the final year of your m.com. every year the two attempts are given so you can apply twice a year for the UGC net exam of commerce.

Previous years papers of UGC

The previous year’s papers are available for NET commerce, which will help you to understand the exam pattern and types of questions asked in the exam. We also have a book for UGC NET covering all past 10 years’ exam questions topics-wise.

Cut-off marks/marks to crack UGC NET Commerce exam

Two cut-offs were issued for UGC NET COMMERCE, the first is for JRF, The Candidates who got marks above this will get JRF.

And second cut-off is for assistant professors, these candidates are eligible for assistant professors and are treated as NET Qualified.

Other important FAQ about UGC Net commerce

UGC net commerce books pdf free download/ UGC net commerce free notes pdf  / हिंदी में यूजीसी नेट 1 पेपर नोट्स pdf

we have free important notes on all subjects of paper 1 &2 of UGC net commerce

UGC net commerce question paper 

we have compiled questions papers of past 5 years 10 attempts questions subject wise, available in course. net commerce question paper with answers is covered.

net exam books for commerce /net exam study material for commerce free download

complete books and study material for UGC net commerce is given by faculties in our course it also covers short notes for net commerce.

UGC net commerce mock test

we have prepared 10 online mock tests based on past exam question papers and this will boost up your preparation for the UGC net commerce paper and paper 1.

preparation tips by one exam team

If you are seriously preparing for net commerce, Just Start with The detailed UGC net commerce syllabus of both Parts and Select the Minimum Sources including books/ Notes For each and every topic given in the syllabus and also go through the UGC net Past Exam Papers of at least 3-4 attempts papers, that will help you to understand the exam pattern and UGC net commerce syllabus also various types of questions that are being asked in net exams, the most questions are of similar type in the exam and some topics have high weightage in UGC net commerce syllabus, so just select minimum sources and start your preparation.

At OneExam we have the best Short Notes which will cover the complete syllabus in a summarized manner along with past attempts papers exam questions which are given with each topic, so that you can cover your complete syllabus quickly along with exams questions for understanding patterns and we also have video lectures by India’s Top CA faculties and University Professors, The course which is designed in such a way that you can crack the exam in very first attempts All the Best

The detailed syllabus of NET Commerce is given here

syllabus for net exam for commerce paper 1

syllabus of UGC net commerce covers the following subjects

Unit-I Teaching Aptitude  

  • Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding, and Reflective), Characteristics, and basic requirements.
  • Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.
  • Factors affecting teaching related to Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment, and Institution.
  • Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centered vs. Learner-centered methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs, etc.).
  • Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern, and ICT based.
  • Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer-based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Unit-II Research Aptitude 

  • Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism, and Postpositivistic approach to research.
  • Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative, and Quantitative Methods, Steps of Research.  
  • Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing,  Application of ICT in research, Research ethics.

Unit-III Comprehension 

  • A passage of text is given. Questions are asked from the passage to be answered.

Unit-IV Communication

  • Communication: Meaning, types, and characteristics of communication.
  • Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication, Barriers to effective communication, Mass-Media, and Society.

Unit-V Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude 

  • Types of reasoning: Number series, Letter series, Codes, and Relationships.
  • Mathematical Aptitude: Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages, etc. 

Unit-VI Logical Reasoning 

  • Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, the structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations, and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition, Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning, Analogies. 
  • Venn diagram: Simple and multiple uses for establishing the validity of arguments.  
  • Indian Logic: Means of knowledge, Pramanas- Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension). · Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Unit-VII Data Interpretation 

  • Sources, acquisition, and classification of Data.
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Data. 
  • Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart, and Line-chart) 
  • Mapping of Data, Data Interpretation. Data and Governance.

Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 

  • ICT: General abbreviations and terminology, Basics of the Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing, Digital initiatives in higher education. ICT and Governance. 

Unit-IX People, Development and Environment 

  • Development and Environment: Millennium Development and Sustainable Development Goals. 
  • Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on the environment. 
  • Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change, and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions. Impacts of pollutants on human health.
  • Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear, and Forests.
  • Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies, Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

Unit-X Higher Education System 

  • Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.
  • Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India. 
  • Oriental, Conventional, and Non-conventional learning programs in India. 
  • Professional, Technical, and Skill-Based education.
  • Value education and environmental education.
  • Policies, Governance, and Administration.

The detailed syllabus of Paper 2 of NET COMMERCE is given below

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business

Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

 · Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business

· Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy 2

· Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy

· Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP

· Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA

· International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD

· World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS

Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing

· Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates

· Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution, and Insolvency of partnership firms

· Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture, and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation, and reconstruction of companies

· Holding company accounts

· Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing, and JIT

· Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis

· Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting

· Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS

· Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit

· Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

Unit 3: Business Economics

· Meaning and scope of business economics

· Objectives of business firms

· Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR

· Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis

· Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale 3

· Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves

· Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination

· Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak-load pricing

Unit 4: Business Finance

· Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing

· Cost of capital and time value of money

· Capital structure

· Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis

· Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies

· Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization

· International monetary system

· Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques

· International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs

· International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting

Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods

· Measures of central tendency

· Measures of dispersion

· Measures of skewness

· Correlation and regression of two variables

· Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem

· Probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions

· Research: Concept and types; Research designs

· Data: Collection and classification of data

· Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling – probability and nonprobability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation

· Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi-square test; Mann-Whitney test (Utest); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test

· Report writing

Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management

· Principles and functions of management 4

· Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control

· Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization

· Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories

· Corporate governance and business ethics

· Human resource management: Concept, role, and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning

· Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits

· Performance appraisal including 360-degree performance appraisal

· Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management

· Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management

· Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change

Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions

· Overview of Indian financial system

· Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks

· Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management

· Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management

· Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market

 · Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds

· Financial Regulators in India

· Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion

· Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems

· Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role

Unit 8: Marketing Management

· Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

· Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development

· Pricing decisions: Factors affecting price determination; Pricing policies and strategies  · Promotion decisions: Role of promotion in marketing; Promotion methods – Advertising; Personal selling; Publicity; Sales promotion tools and techniques; Promotion mix

· Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management

· Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions

· Service marketing

· Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM

· Logistics management

 Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business

· Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi-contracts;

· Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency

· Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of the buyer

· Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Types of negotiable instruments; Negotiation and assignment; Dishonour and discharge of negotiable instruments

· The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint-stock company

· Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India · The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions

· The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cybercrimes and penalties

· The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions

· Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs): Patents, trademarks, and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property

· Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST

Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

· Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes

· International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing  · Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations

· Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income tax returns

ugc net commerce free notes pdf are given in our free lectures which are held on our youtube channel

Prepared by CA SANDEEP BISHNOI

Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 

  • ICT: General abbreviations and terminology, Basics of the Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing, Digital initiatives in higher education. ICT and Governance. 

Unit-IX People, Development and Environment 

  • Development and Environment: Millennium Development and Sustainable Development Goals. 
  • Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on the environment. 
  • Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change, and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions. Impacts of pollutants on human health.
  • Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear, and Forests.
  • Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies, Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

Unit-X Higher Education System 

  • Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.
  • Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India. 
  • Oriental, Conventional, and Non-conventional learning programs in India. 
  • Professional, Technical, and Skill-Based education.
  • Value education and environmental education.
  • Policies, Governance, and Administration.

The detailed syllabus of Paper 2 of NET COMMERCE is given below

Unit 1: Business Environment and International Business

Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

 · Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business

· Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy 2

· Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs, and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy

· Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP

· Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA

· International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD

· World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS

Unit 2: Accounting and Auditing

· Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates

· Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution, and Insolvency of partnership firms

· Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture, and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation, and reconstruction of companies

· Holding company accounts

· Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing, and JIT

· Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis

· Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting

· Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS

· Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit

· Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

Unit 3: Business Economics

· Meaning and scope of business economics

· Objectives of business firms

· Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR

· Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis

· Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale 3

· Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves

· Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination

· Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak-load pricing

Unit 4: Business Finance

· Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing

· Cost of capital and time value of money

· Capital structure

· Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis

· Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies

· Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization

· International monetary system

· Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques

· International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs

· International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting

Unit 5: Business Statistics and Research Methods

· Measures of central tendency

· Measures of dispersion

· Measures of skewness

· Correlation and regression of two variables

· Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem

· Probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions

· Research: Concept and types; Research designs

· Data: Collection and classification of data

· Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling – probability and nonprobability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation

· Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi-square test; Mann-Whitney test (Utest); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test

· Report writing

Unit 6: Business Management and Human Resource Management

· Principles and functions of management 4

· Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control

· Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization

· Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories

· Corporate governance and business ethics

· Human resource management: Concept, role, and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning

· Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits

· Performance appraisal including 360-degree performance appraisal

· Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management

· Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management

· Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change

Unit 7: Banking and Financial Institutions

· Overview of Indian financial system

· Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks

· Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management

· Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management

· Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market

 · Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds

· Financial Regulators in India

· Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion

· Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems

· Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role

Unit 8: Marketing Management

· Marketing: Concept and approaches; Marketing channels; Marketing mix; Strategic marketing planning; Market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

· Product decisions: Concept; Product line; Product mix decisions; Product life cycle; New product development

· Pricing decisions: Factors affecting price determination; Pricing policies and strategies  · Promotion decisions: Role of promotion in marketing; Promotion methods – Advertising; Personal selling; Publicity; Sales promotion tools and techniques; Promotion mix

· Distribution decisions: Channels of distribution; Channel management

· Consumer Behaviour; Consumer buying process; factors influencing consumer buying decisions

· Service marketing

· Trends in marketing: Social marketing; Online marketing; Green marketing; Direct marketing; Rural marketing; CRM

· Logistics management

 Unit 9: Legal Aspects of Business

· Indian Contract Act, 1872: Elements of a valid contract; Capacity of parties; Free consent; Discharge of a contract; Breach of contract and remedies against breach; Quasi-contracts;

· Special contracts: Contracts of indemnity and guarantee; contracts of bailment and pledge; Contracts of agency

· Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Sale and agreement to sell; Doctrine of Caveat Emptor; Rights of unpaid seller and rights of the buyer

· Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881: Types of negotiable instruments; Negotiation and assignment; Dishonour and discharge of negotiable instruments

· The Companies Act, 2013: Nature and kinds of companies; Company formation; Management, meetings and winding up of a joint-stock company

· Limited Liability Partnership: Structure and procedure of formation of LLP in India · The Competition Act, 2002: Objectives and main provisions

· The Information Technology Act, 2000: Objectives and main provisions; Cybercrimes and penalties

· The RTI Act, 2005: Objectives and main provisions

· Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs): Patents, trademarks, and copyrights; Emerging issues in intellectual property

· Goods and Services Tax (GST): Objectives and main provisions; Benefits of GST; Implementation mechanism; Working of dual GST

Unit 10: Income-tax and Corporate Tax Planning

· Income-tax: Basic concepts; Residential status and tax incidence; Exempted incomes; Agricultural income; Computation of taxable income under various heads; Deductions from Gross total income; Assessment of Individuals; Clubbing of incomes

· International Taxation: Double taxation and its avoidance mechanism; Transfer pricing  · Corporate Tax Planning: Concepts and significance of corporate tax planning; Tax avoidance versus tax evasion; Techniques of corporate tax planning; Tax considerations in specific business situations: Make or buy decisions; Own or lease an asset; Retain; Renewal or replacement of asset; Shut down or continue operations

· Deduction and collection of tax at source; Advance payment of tax; E-filing of income tax returns

Prepared by CA SANDEEP BISHNOI

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